Wednesday, May 19, 2010

Scientists pinpoint origins of little dogs

Choosing a vet is one of the most important decisions a pet owner makes. There are a number of things to keep in mind when choosing a veterinary care center and finding the best vet (or vets) for your pet.

Every pet needs a good general care vet and some require one or more specialty veterinarians. Examples of veterinary specialties include: care of exotic animals or a particular species, holistic care, osteopathic care, ophthalmology, anesthesiology, toxicology, oncology, behaviorism, nutrition, sports medicine, emergency medicine, dermatology, dentistry, and so on.

There may be a few dozen to a few hundred veterinary care practices and hospitals in your area. Talk to coworkers, friends and family pet owners, as well as trusted pet professionals (your favorite groomer, trainer, boarding kennel operator, pet sitter, doggy daycare provider, and pet boutique owner) and ask for recommendations. What veterinarians do they use and why?

Put Your Vet to the Test

When choosing a vet you are hiring a professional. Put them to the test! I suggest using the following questionnaire as a framework from which you can start evaluating potential vets or your satisfaction with your current veterinarian. This framework contains a guideline of sample questions to ask yourself and your vet about how well the vet in question meets your criteria; and will be an even more effective evaluation tool when supplemented with your own questions and concerns.


How do the prices compare with other vets in town?

    * Specialty vets may cost considerably more than general care vets
    * Call local veterinary offices and request office visit prices. Survey as many as possible and use their responses to determine a baseline rate for your area.

Does the veterinary care clinic accept your pet health insurance provider?

Do they offer discounts for multiple pets from the same household?


Business ethics: Check with the Better Business Bureau to make sure there are no complaints on file.

Professional Associations: Is your vet a member of any professional organizations? (Ex. American Veterinary Medical Association - AVMA, American Animal Hospital Association - AAHA)


Do they offer grooming?

Do they offer boarding?

Do they offer appointments on weekends? Evenings?

Do they offer emergency services on nights, weekends, and holidays? If no, to whom do they refer clients for emergency care?


What is the average wait time for an appointment?

How close is the location from your home?

Is it easy to find a parking space?

Is the facility clean and well-lit?

Your Pet's Needs

How much experience does your vet have with your pet's unique special needs? How many cases per year does he or she treat?

If your veterinarian does not have experience addressing your pet's particular needs, will he or she refer you to a specialist and work with that specialist on a customized wellness plan?

Specialty Associations: Is your vet a member of any veterinary medical associations dedicated specifically toward your animal's needs or wellness plan? (Ex: American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior - AVSAB, American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association - AHVMA) If you are interested in alternative medicine, limited vaccination protocols, home prepared diets for dogs, etc., will your veterinarian work with you to incorporate these priorities into your pet's wellness plan?


How many veterinarians are on staff?

Is the office staff friendly... on the phone? In person?

Are the veterinary technicians friendly, to you and the animals? Are they gentle when handling animals and dealing with fearful animals? Do they listen to your concerns, appear knowledgeable and offer helpful information?

Are staff members professionally dressed?

What are your thoughts on the vet's "bedside manner?" Does your pet like her? Does she like your pet? Are all your questions answered patiently, thoughtfully and thoroughly, or are you rushed out so the next client can be ushered in?

Understanding Animal Behavior

For many pets, going to the vet's office is a stressful and scary experience. A staff and veterinarian unknowledgeable about animal behavior can exacerbate the problem. The leading society for veterinary behaviorists (AVSAB) recommends early socialization, positive reinforcement training techniques, and warns against the promotion of antiquated "dominance theory" for behavior modification in dogs. For more on AVSAB's position statements and advice for choosing a trainer, check AVSAB Online.

If your dog has an existing fear of the vet, a veterinary behaviorist or experienced positive trainer should be able to help you learn how to make veterinary visits and husbandry procedures significantly more enjoyable and less stressful for your fearful pet. Bring along a variety of really tasty, special treats and a clicker; click and treat your pet liberally throughout the appointment to create some positive associations at the vet's office. If your pet is too stressed to eat at the vet, a trainer or behaviorist should be able to help you implement a desensitization and counterconditioning program.

Did Your Vet Pass the Test?

If not, the search continues! Don't be discouraged - finding the right vet truly is a pet owner's treasure hunt, and the rewards at the end of the search are bountiful and full of wellness for your well-loved furry family members.

How to Calculate a Dog's Age in Dog Years

A popular misconception is that dogs age 7 years for each calendar year. In fact, canine aging is much more rapid during the first 2 years of a dog's life. After the first 2 years the ratio settles down to 5 to 1 for small and medium breeds. For large breeds the rate is 6 to 1, and for giant breeds the rate is 7 to 1. Thus, at 10 years of age a Great Dane would be 80 years old while a pug would only be 64.
How to Tell a Dog's Age

If you've taken in a dog whose age is unknown, there are some ways to determine his age. Here are some things vets check to get a general sense of how old a dog is:

The Teeth: Dogs usually have a set of permanent teeth by their seventh month, so if you've come across a dog with clean pearly whites, he is likely a year old or thereabouts. Yellowing on a dog's back teeth may put the dog between one and two years of age, while tartar build-up at a minimal level could mean you have a dog between 3 and 5. Missing teeth or severe wear usually means the dog is a senior and could use some special dental care.

Muscle Tone: Younger dogs are more likely to have some muscle definition from their higher activity level. Older dogs are usually either a tad bonier or a little fatter from decreased activity.

The Coat: A younger dog usually has a soft, fine coat, whereas an older dog tends to have thicker, coarser (and sometimes oilier) fur. A senior dog may display grays or patches of white, particularly around the snout.

The Eyes: Bright, clear eyes without tearing or discharge are common in younger dogs. Cloudy or opaque eyes may mean an older dog.

Use this chart to calculate your dog's age:

Old Age in Dogs

The age at which a dog can be considered elderly varies widely among models. In general, the larger the dog, the more quickly it declines. For instance, a Great Dane could be considered "senior" at age 5, while a smaller toy poodle would still be spry at twice that age. Remember, however, that just because a dog is chronologically old doesn't mean that an endless series of malfunctions is in store. In many cases an elderly dog can enjoy many healthy, active, pain-free years.

One of the best ways to prolong the life and improve the functions of an elderly dog is to carefully regulate its fuel intake. Older dogs exercise less and thus need fewer calories. And since age reduces their ability to digest and absorb nutrients, high-quality food specifically formulated for their needs is a necessity. Excessive amounts of protein, phosphorus, and sodium can aggravate kidney and heart problems, so most such foods contain smaller amounts of higher-quality protein, along with reduced quantities of other elements. Levels of vitamins, zinc, fatty acids, and fiber, however, are increased.

Tuesday, May 18, 2010

Miniature Pinscher toy dog Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Miniature Pinscher is structurally a well balanced, sturdy, compact, short-coupled, smooth-coated dog. He naturally is well groomed, proud, vigorous and alert. Characteristic traits are his hackney-like action, fearless animation, complete self-possession, and his spirited presence.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Size -10 inches to 12½ inches in height allowed, with desired height 11 inches to 11½ inches measured at highest point of the shoulder blades. Disqualification -Under 10 inches or over 12½ inches in height. Length of males equals height at withers. Females may be slightly longer.

In correct proportion to the body. Tapering, narrow with well fitted but not too prominent foreface which balances with the skull. No indication of coarseness. Eyes full, slightly oval, clear, bright and dark even to a true black, including eye rims, with the exception of chocolates, whose eye rims should be self-colored. Ears set high, standing erect from base to tip. May be cropped or uncropped. Skull appears flat, tapering forward toward the muzzle. Muzzle strong rather than fine and delicate, and in proportion to the head as a whole. Head well balanced with only a slight drop to the muzzle, which is parallel to the top of the skull. Nose black only, with the exception of chocolates which should have a self-colored nose. Lips and Cheeks small, taut and closely adherent to each other. Teeth meet in a scissors bite.

 Neck, Topline, Body
Neck proportioned to head and body, slightly arched, gracefully curved, blending into shoulders, muscular and free from suggestion of dewlap or throatiness. Topline -Back level or slightly sloping toward the rear both when standing and gaiting. Body compact, slightly wedge-shaped, muscular. Forechest well developed. Well-sprung ribs . Depth of brisket, the base line of which is level with points of the elbows. Belly moderately tucked up to denote grace of structural form. Short and strong in loin. Croup level with topline. Tail set high, held erect, docked in proportion to size of dog. 

Shoulders clean and sloping with moderate angulation coordinated to permit the hackney-like action. Elbows close to the body. Legs -Strong bone development and small clean joints. As viewed from the front, straight and upstanding. Pasterns strong, perpendicular. Dewclaws should be removed. Feet small, catlike, toes strong, well arched and closely knit with deep pads. Nails thick, blunt.

Well muscled quarters set wide enough apart to fit into a properly balanced body. As viewed from the rear, the legs are straight and parallel. From the side, well angulated. Thighs well muscled. Stifles well defined. Hocks short, set well apart. Dewclaws should be removed. Feet small, catlike, toes strong, well arched and closely knit with deep pads. Nails thick, blunt.

Smooth, hard and short, straight and lustrous, closely adhering to and uniformly covering the body.

Solid clear red. Stag red (red with intermingling of black hairs). Black with sharply defined rust-red markings on cheeks, lips, lower jaw, throat, twin spots above eyes and chest, lower half of forelegs, inside of hind legs and vent region, lower portion of hocks and feet. Black pencil stripes on toes. Chocolate with rust-red markings the same as specified for blacks, except brown pencil stripes on toes. In the solid red and stag red a rich vibrant medium to dark shade is preferred. Disqualifications -Any color other than listed. Thumb mark (patch of black hair surrounded by rust on the front of the foreleg between the foot and the wrist; on chocolates, the patch is chocolate hair). White on any part of dog which exceeds one-half inch in its longest dimension.

The forelegs and hind legs move parallel, with feet turning neither in nor out. The hackney-like action is a high-stepping, reaching, free and easy gait in which the front leg moves straight forward and in front of the body and the foot bends at the wrist. The dog drives smoothly and strongly from the rear. The head and tail are carried high.

Fearless animation, complete self-possession, and spirited presence.

Under 10 inches or over 12½ inches in height.
Any color other than listed. Thumb mark (patch of black hair surrounded by rust on the front of the foreleg between the foot and the wrist; on chocolates, the patch is chocolate hair). White on any part of dog which exceeds one-half (½) inch in its longest dimension.

Approved July 8, 1980
Reformatted February 21, 1990

Miniature Pinscher small dog breed

The Miniature Pinscher (Zwergpinscher, Min Pin) is a small breed of dog of the Pinscher  type, developed in Germany. Miniature Pinschers were the first bred to hunt vermin, especially rats. Pinscher, is a German word related to the English word "pincher", which is thought to refer to the ears of the breed which used to be 'pinched' or 'cropped'. Zwerg means Dwarf. The Miniature Pinscher is also known as the "King of the Toy Dogs". The international kennel club, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, lists the Miniature Pinscher in Group 2, Section 1.1 Pinscher, along with the Dobermann, the German Pinscher, the Austrian Pinscher, and the other toy pinscher, the Affenpinscher. Other kennel clubs list the Miniature Pinscher in the Toy Group or Companion Group.

The original true Miniature Pinscher was more stout in appearance than today's refined dog. Its coat was more coarse and the dog in general was less refined. The refined look of today's dog was a result primarily of many who neglected to realize that the breed was a working breed and not a toy breed. Much of the natural look went away with years of breeding for the refined small dog now seen as today's Miniature Pinscher. Buyers should also be aware that there is no such dog as a "teacup" or "pocket" Min Pin: These are simply terms that certain breeders use to increase interest in their dogs (and sometimes the price).The miniature Pinscher also tends to have very long legs, and a small body, which can sometimes make it look quite comical. As a result of the flexible, agile body of a Miniature Pinscher, they are able to curl up in almost any position and almost always be comfortable.

Miniature Pinscher breed standard calls for 10 to 12.5 inches at the withers (shoulders) with any dog under 10 or over 12.5 not eligible to be shown. The original Miniature Pinscher actually had more variance as being a cross between a smooth coated Dachshund and a Miniature Greyhound (known today as the Italian Greyhound, led to some carrying the Dachshund legs while others carried the Italian Greyhound leg creating some short and some tall. After many years of German breeding an average was maintained. Though today's standard is smaller than the original.

Coat and color
The coat is short and smooth, with colors, according to most breed standards, of red, stag-red, and black or chocolate with tan or rust markings, in addition to the blue and fawn. Blue coats, while admitted into the UK Kennel Club, can be registered in the American Kennel Club but cannot compete in show. They still benefit from all other aspects of the AKC. The Miniature Pinscher frequently has a docked tail and cropped ears, though the AKC no longer requires ear cropping for shows. The AKC standard specifies a characteristic hackney-like action: "a high-stepping, reaching, free and easy gait in which the front leg moves straight forward and in front of the body and the foot bends at the wrist. The dog drives smoothly and strongly from the rear. The head and tail are carried high." The standard in Europe does not require the high stepping gait as the original Miniature Pinscher (zwergpinscher) did not walk in such a fashion. In Europe and Germany this high stepping gait is considered a fault.

The miniature pinscher will on occasion carry a small white patch generally located on neck or breast area. This links directly back to the original breed coloring. The Miniature Pinscher did come in Merle coloring which in the Dachshund is referred to as Dapple and in Harlequin like that found in the Great Dane. The white gene is part of the makeup of this breed; though breeders for years have fought to eliminate this gene, it is accepted by AKC in conformation and show so long as the area of white is limited to no more than 1/2 inch in direction.
The miniature pinscher is an energetic dog that thrives on owner interaction. They are very loyal dogs and are typically categorized as "one, or two person dogs", but with socialization, they can be integrated into families, and get along moderately with other dogs, pets, and children. Children, especially younger ones, must be encouraged to act gently to avoid being bit as these dogs are known to snap without any provocation. Teething can be one provocation. Socialization as puppies will help ensure they can co-exist and interact with other dogs as adults. Min Pins are known for biting people when being simply introduced as a stranger and are extremely protective of their owners. This protective instinct will manifest as nonstop barking and challenging postures. Although originally bred for ratting, they are also excellent watch dogs, barking at all things they deem a threat. These dogs can jump very high, some can jump five and a half feet in the air.

These little dogs will need lots of exercise per day. A backyard would be preferable so they can have an outdoor area to run around in, but it will need to be securely fenced in as this breed is the "Houdini" of the dog world when it comes to escaping. The breed is a toy breed (AKC), these dogs' energy level exceeds the traditional concept or idea of the standard toy breed. Daily walks are not sufficient for this breed to wear off their excess energy. Though dog parks can be a solution, the true Miniature Pinscher, being a terrier, can go on the hunt at any moment, so an off-lead dog is a serious challenge with this breed. This dog truly does not see itself as small and therefore will challenge anything, including larger breeds. The breed is rated the 3rd worst breed for apartments due to overall lack of exercise as well as natural guarding instincts which lends the dog to barking and leads to many noise complaints. In addition, the dog can be quite destructive to homes and fixtures if the dog is not allowed ample time to expel its natural energy. Reports of damage to furniture, carpet, interior walls, doors, and other household products have been often reported. These dogs are only suitable for houses and apartments if they have regular exercise. A daily 45 minute+ exercise regimen is a must in order to have this dog in an apartment.

Manchester Terrier toy dog breed standard

General Appearance
A small, black, short-coated dog with distinctive rich mahogany markings and a taper style tail. In structure the Manchester presents a sleek, sturdy, yet elegant look, and has a wedge-shaped, long and clean head with a keen, bright, alert expression. The smooth, compact, muscular body expresses great power and agility, enabling the Manchester to kill vermin and course small game.

Except for size and ear options, there are no differences between the Standard and Toy varieties of the Manchester Terrier. The Toy is a diminutive version of the Standard variety.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The Toy variety shall not exceed 12 pounds. It is suggested that clubs consider dividing the American-bred and Open classes by weight as follows: 7 pounds and under, over 7 pounds and not exceeding 12 pounds.

The Standard variety shall be over 12 pounds and not exceeding 22 pounds. Dogs weighing over 22 pounds shall be disqualified. It is suggested that clubs consider dividing the American-bred and Open classes by weight as follows: over 12 pounds and not exceeding 16 pounds, over 16 pounds and not exceeding 22 pounds.

The Manchester Terrier, overall, is slightly longer than tall. The height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, is slightly less than the length, measured horizontally from the point of the shoulders to the rear projection of the upper thigh. The bone and muscle of the Manchester Terrier is of sufficient mass to ensure agility and endurance.

The Manchester Terrier has a keen and alert expression. The nearly black, almond shaped eyes are small, bright, and sparkling. They are set moderately close together, slanting upwards on the outside. The eyes neither protrude nor sink in the skull. Pigmentation must be black.

Correct ears for the Standard variety are either the naturally erect ear, the cropped ear, or the button ear. No preference is given to any of the ear types. The naturally erect ear, and the button ear, should be wider at the base tapering to pointed tips, and carried well up on the skull. Wide, flaring, blunt tipped, or "bell" ears are a serious fault. Cropped ears should be long, pointed and carried erect.

The only correct ear for the Toy variety is the naturally erect ear. They should be wider at the base tapering to pointed tips, and carried well up on the skull. Wide, flaring, blunt tipped, or "bell" ears are a serious fault. Cropped, or cut ears are a disqualification in the Toy variety.

The head is long, narrow, tight skinned, and almost flat with a slight indentation up the forehead. It resembles a blunted wedge in frontal and profile views. There is a visual effect of a slight stop as viewed in profile.

The muzzle and skull are equal in length. The muzzle is well filled under the eyes with no visible cheek muscles. The underjaw is full and well defined and the nose is black.

Tight black lips lie close to the jaw. The jaws should be full and powerful with full and proper dentition. The teeth are white and strongly developed with a true scissors bite. Level bite is acceptable.

Neck, Topline, Body
The slightly arched neck should be slim and graceful, and of moderate length. It gradually becomes larger as it approaches, and blends smoothly with the sloping shoulders. Throatiness is undesirable. The topline shows a slight arch over the robust loins falling slightly to the tail set. A flat back or roached back is to be severely penalized. The chest is narrow between the legs and deep in the brisket. The forechest is moderately defined. The ribs are well sprung, but flattened in the lower end to permit clearance of the forelegs. The abdomen should be tucked up extending in an arched line from the deep brisket. The taper style tail is moderately short reaching no further than the hock joint. It is set on at the end of the croup. Being thicker where it joins the body, the tail tapers to a point. The tail is carried in a slight upward curve, but never over the back.

The shoulder blades and the upper arm should be relatively the same length. The distance from the elbow to the withers should be approximately the same as the distance from the elbow to the ground. The elbows should lie close to the brisket. The shoulders are well laid back. The forelegs are straight, of proportionate length, and placed well under the brisket. The pasterns should be almost perpendicular. The front feet are compact and well arched. The two middle toes should be slightly longer than the others. The pads should be thick and the toenails should be jet black.

The thigh should be muscular with the length of the upper and lower thighs being approximately equal. The stifle is well turned. The well let down hocks should not turn in nor out as viewed from the rear. The hind legs are carried well back. The hind feet are shaped like those of a cat with thick pads and jet black nails.

The coat should be smooth, short, dense, tight, and glossy; not soft.

Color The coat color should be jet black and rich mahogany tan, which should not run or blend into each other, but abruptly form clear, well defined lines of color. There shall be a very small tan spot over each eye, and a very small tan spot on each cheek. On the head, the muzzle is tanned to the nose. The nose and nasal bone are jet black. The tan extends under the throat, ending in the shape of the letter V. The inside of the ears are partly tan. There shall be tan spots, called "rosettes," on each side of the chest above the front legs. These are more pronounced in puppies than in adults. There should be a black ""thumbprint" patch on the front of each foreleg at the pastern. The remainder of the foreleg shall be tan to the carpus joint. There should be a distinct black "pencil mark" line running lengthwise on the top of each toe on all four feet. Tan on the hind leg should continue from the pencilling on the toes up the inside of the legs to a little below the stifle joint. The outside of the hind legs should be black. There should be tan under the tail, and on the vent, but only of such size as to be covered by the tail.

White on any part of the coat is a serious fault, and shall disqualify whenever the white shall form a patch or stripe measuring as much as one half inch at its longest dimension.

Any color other than black and tan shall be disqualified.

Color and/or markings should never take precedence over soundness and type.

The gait should be free and effortless with good reach of the forequarters, showing no indication of hackney gait. Rear quarters should have strong, driving power to match the front reach. Hocks should fully extend. Each rear leg should move in line with the foreleg of the same side, neither thrown in nor out. When moving at a trot, the legs tend to converge towards the center of gravity line beneath the dog.

The Manchester Terrier is neither aggressive nor shy. He is keenly observant, devoted, but discerning. Not being a sparring breed, the Manchester is generally friendly with other dogs. Excessive shyness or aggressiveness should be considered a serious fault.

Standard variety-Weight over 22 pounds.
Toy variety-Cropped or cut ears.
Both varieties--White on any part of the coat whenever the white shall form a patch or stripe measuring as much as one half inch at its longest dimension.
Any color other than black and tan.

Approved June 10, 1991
Effective July 31, 1991

Manchester Terrier dog breed

Manchester Terriers are considered by most to be the oldest of all identifiable terrier breeds, finding mention in works dating from as early as the 16th century. In 1570 Dr. Caius (Encyclopedia of Dogs) gives mention to the 'Black and Tan Terrier,' though he referred to a rougher coated, shorter legged dog than we are now accustomed to.

By the early 1800s a closer facsimile to the current Manchester Terrier had evolved. In The Dog in Health and Disease by J. A. Walsh a full chapter was devoted to the Black and Tan, for the first time recognizing it as an established breed. The description Walsh set forth might, in fact, serve well today: Smooth haired, long tapering nose, narrow flat skull, eyes small and bright, chest rather deep than wide, only true color black and tan.

This breed has maintained consistency in type and appearance for nearly two centuries (at the very least).

In its native England, the Kennel Club (UK) recognizes the Manchester Terrier in the Terrier Group and the closely related English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) in the Toy Group.

In North America the Manchester Terrier is divided into two varieties. The Toy Manchester Terrier was originally recognized as a separate breed in 1938, bred down in size from the Manchester Terrier. The Toy Manchester Terrier weighs less than 12 pounds and has naturally erect ears, never cropped. It is placed in the Toy Group by the Canadian Kennel Club and the American Kennel Club, although the Manchester Terrier is placed in the Terrier Group. The Manchester Terrier non-toy variety weighs 12 to 22 pounds and has 3 allowable ear types (naturally erect, button, or cropped). Other than size differences and ear type, the Manchester Terrier and the Toy Manchester Terrier have the same over all appearance, and since 1958 have been varieties of the same breed.

The following is a brief overview of the breed's history in both its native England and America:

In England
The early 1800s saw times of poor sanitation in England. Rats soon became a health menace and rat killing became a popular sport. John Hulme, enthusiastic devotee of the sport of rat killing and rabbit coursing, crossed a Whippet to a cross bred terrier to produce a tenacious, streamlined animal infinitely suited to the sport. (Perhaps the Whippet  influence explains the unusual topline of the Manchester still required today). This cross proved so successful that it was repeated, resulting in the establishment of a definite type—thus the Manchester Terrier was born.

By 1827 the breed's fighting spirit had made it equally handy along a hedge row as in a rat-pit. The Manchester could tackle, with silent determination, an opponent twice its size. Ears were cropped to save risk of being torn in frequent scraps. (This also enhanced the sharp appearance of the expression). When rat-killing became illegal in England rat-pits were supplanted by dining halls or public inns, all of which were infested by rats. To combat the rodent problem each inn kept kennels. When the taprooms closed, who do you think took command? The little Black and Tan rat killers who proved their worth one hundred-fold to the inn keeper.

1860 saw the city of Manchester in England as the breed centre for these "Rat Terriers" and the name Manchester Terrier surfaced. Smaller specimens began to gain appeal. Unethical persons were known to introduce Chihuahuas in order to reduce size to as small as 2 1/2 pounds. This resulted in numerous problems, including apple heads, thinning coats, and poppy eyes. Inbreeding further diminished size yet the smaller versions, though delicate and sickly, remained popular for some time.

Smaller Manchesters were carried in specially designed leather pouches suspended from the rider's belt, (earning the title of "Groom's Pocket Piece"). With their smaller stature these dogs obviously could not keep up with the hounds, but when the hounds ran the fox into dense thickets they were not able to penetrate, the little Manchester Terrier was released. Nicknamed the "Gentleman's Terrier" this breed was never a "sissy." His dauntless spirit commanded respect.

In the United States
As in its native country the Manchester gained quick acceptance as a recognized breed. In 1886, just two years after the American Kennel Club was organized, the first Black and Tan Terrier was registered in the stud book. The following year "Lever" (AKC #7585) became the first AKC recognized Manchester Terrier.

The 20th century is dotted by the recognition of breed clubs devoted to preserving and promoting this breed:

In 1923 the "Manchester Terrier Club of America" was recognized and 1934 saw the Toy Black and Tan Terrier changed to Toy Manchester Terrier, and in 1938 the "American Toy Manchester Terrier Club" was recognized.

By 1952, however, the "Manchester Terrier Club of America" (Standards) was without organized breed representation. To the credit of the "American Toy Manchester Terrier Club", the two breeds were combined as one (with two varieties - Standard and Toy) with the formation of the "American Manchester Terrier Club" in 1958, an organization which still survives today.

Pekingese toy dog breed Standards

General Appearance
The Pekingese is a well-balanced, compact dog of Chinese origin with a heavy front and lighter hindquarters. Its temperament is one of directness, independence and individuality. Its image is lionlike, implying courage, dignity, boldness and self-esteem rather than daintiness or delicacy.

Size, Substance, Proportion
Size/Substance - The Pekingese, when lifted, is surprisingly heavy for its size. It has a stocky, muscular body. All weights are correct within the limit of 14 pounds. Disqualification: Weight over 14 pounds. Proportion - Overall balance is of utmost importance. The head is large in proportion to the body. The Pekingese is slightly longer than tall when measured from the forechest to the buttocks. The overall outline is an approximate ratio of 3 high to 5 long.

Face - The topskull is massive, broad and flat and, when combined with the wide set eyes, cheekbones and broad lower jaw, forms the correctly shaped face. When viewed from the front, the skull is wider than deep, which contributes to the desired rectangular, envelope-shaped appearance of the head. In profile, the face is flat. When viewed from the side, the chin, nose leather and brow all lie in one plane, which slants very slightly backward from chin to forehead. Ears - They are heart-shaped, set on the front corners of the topskull, and lie flat against the head. The leather does not extend below the jaw. Correctly placed ears, with their heavy feathering and long fringing, frame the sides of the face and add to the appearance of a wide, rectangular head. Eyes - They are large, very dark, round, lustrous and set wide apart. The look is bold, not bulging. The eye rims are black and the white of the eye does not show when the dog is looking straight ahead. Nose - It is broad, short and black. Nostrils are wide and open rather than pinched. A line drawn horizontally over the top of the nose intersects slightly above the center of the eyes. Wrinkle - It effectively separates the upper and lower areas of the face. It is a hair-covered fold of skin extending from one cheek over the bridge of the nose in a wide inverted V to the other cheek. It is never so prominent or heavy as to crowd the facial features, obscure more than a small portion of the eyes, or fall forward over any portion of the nose leather. Stop - It is obscured from view by the over-nose wrinkle. Muzzle - It is very flat, broad, and well filled-in below the eyes. The skin is black on all colors. Whiskers add to the desired expression. Mouth - The lower jaw is undershot and broad. The black lips meet neatly and neither teeth nor tongue show when the mouth is closed.

Neck, Body, Tail
Neck - It is very short and thick. Body - It is pear-shaped, compact and low to the ground. It is heavy in front with well-sprung ribs slung between the forelegs. The forechest is broad and full without a protruding breastbone. The underline rises from the deep chest to the lighter loin, thus forming a narrow waist. The topline is straight and the loin is short. Tail - The high set tail is slightly arched and carried well over the back, free of kinks or curls. Long, profuse, straight fringing may fall to either side.

They are short, thick and heavy-boned. The bones of the forelegs are moderately bowed between the pastern and elbow. The broad chest, wide set forelegs and the closer rear legs all contribute to the correct rolling gait. The distance from the point of the shoulder to the tip of the withers is approximately equal to the distance from the point of the shoulder to the elbow. Shoulders are well laid back and fit smoothly onto the body. The elbows are always close to the body. Front feet are turned out slightly when standing or moving. The pasterns slope gently.

They are lighter in bone than the forequarters. There is moderate angulation of stifle and hock. When viewed from behind, the rear legs are reasonably close and parallel, and the feet point straight ahead when standing or moving.

Coat & Presentation
Coat - It is a long, coarse-textured, straight, stand-off outer coat, with thick, soft undercoat. The coat forms a noticeable mane on the neck and shoulder area with the coat on the remainder of the body somewhat shorter in length. A long and profuse coat is desirable providing it does not obscure the shape of the body. Long feathering is found on toes, backs of the thighs and forelegs, with longer fringing on the ears and tail. 
Presentation - Presentation should accentuate the natural outline of the Pekingese. Any obvious trimming or sculpting of the coat, detracting from its natural appearance, should be severely penalized.

All coat colors and markings are allowable and of equal merit. A black mask or a self-colored face is equally acceptable. Regardless of coat color the exposed skin of the muzzle, nose, lips and eye rims is black.

It is unhurried, dignified, free and strong, with a slight roll over the shoulders. This motion is smooth and effortless and is as free as possible from bouncing, prancing or jarring. The rolling gait results from a combination of the bowed forelegs, well laid back shoulders, full broad chest and narrow light rear, all of which produce adequate reach and moderate drive.

A combination of regal dignity, intelligence and self-importance make for a good natured, opinionated and affectionate companion to those who have earned its respect.

Weight over 14 pounds.
The foregoing is a description of the ideal Pekingese. Any deviation should be penalized in direct proportion to the extent of that deviation.

Approved: January 13, 2004
Effective: March 2, 2004