Wednesday, February 17, 2010

Brussels Griffon small dog breed standard

General Appearance
A toy dog, intelligent, alert, sturdy, with a thickset, short body, a smart carriage and set-up, attracting attention by an almost human expression. There are two distinct types of coat: rough or smooth. Except for coat, there is no difference between the two.

Size, Proportion, Substance

Size - Weight usually 8 to 10 pounds, and should not exceed 12 pounds. Type and quality are of greater importance than weight, and a smaller dog that is sturdy and well proportioned should not be penalized. Proportion - Square, as measured from point of shoulder to rearmost projection of upper thigh and from withers to ground. Substance - Thickset, compact with good balance. Well boned.

A very important feature. An almost human expression. Eyes set well apart, very large, black, prominent, and well open. The eyelashes long and black. Eyelids edged with black. Ears small and set rather high on the head. May be shown cropped or natural. If natural they are carried semi-erect. Skull large and round, with a domed forehead. The stop deep. Nose very black, extremely short, its tip being set back deeply between the eyes so as to form a lay-back. The nostrils large. Disqualifications - Dudley or butterfly nose. Lips edged with black, not pendulous but well brought together, giving a clean finish to the mouth. Jaws must be undershot. The incisors of the lower jaw should protrude over the upper incisors. The lower jaw is prominent, rather broad with an upward sweep. Neither teeth nor tongue should show when the mouth is closed. A wry mouth is a serious fault. Disqualifications - Bite overshot. Hanging tongue.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck medium length, gracefully arched. Topline - Back level and short. Body - A thickset, short body. Brisket should be broad and deep, ribs well sprung. Short-coupled. Tail - set and held high, docked to about one-third.

Forelegs medium length, straight in bone, well muscled, set moderately wide apart and straight from the point of the shoulders as viewed from the front. Pasterns short and strong. Feet round, small, and compact, turned neither in nor out. Toes well arched. Black pads and toenails preferred.

Hind legs set true, thighs strong and well muscled, stifles bent, hocks well let down, turning neither in nor out.

The rough coat is wiry and dense, the harder and more wiry the better. On no account should the dog look or feel woolly, and there should be no silky hair anywhere. The coat should not be so long as to give a shaggy appearance, but should be distinctly different all over from the smooth coat. The head should be covered with wiry hair, slightly longer around the eyes, nose, cheeks, and chin, thus forming a fringe. The rough coat is hand-stripped and should never appear unkempt. Body coat of sufficient length to determine texture. The coat may be tidied for neatness of appearance, but coats prepared with scissors and/or clippers should be severely penalized. The smooth coat is straight, short, tight and glossy, with no trace of wiry hair.

Either 1) Red: reddish brown with a little black at the whiskers and chin allowable; 2) Belge: black and reddish brown mixed, usually with black mask and whiskers; 3) Black and Tan: black with uniform reddish brown markings, appearing under the chin, on the legs, above each eye, around the edges of the ears and around the vent; or 4) Black: solid black. Any white hairs are a serious fault, except for "frost" on the muzzle of a mature dog, which is natural. Disqualification - White spot or blaze any where on coat.

Movement is a straightforward, purposeful trot, showing moderate reach and drive, and maintaining a steady topline.

Intelligent, alert and sensitive. Full of self-importance.

Scale of Points

  Nose and stop
  Bite, chin and jaw
Body and General Conformation
  Body (brisket and rib)
  Legs and feet
  General appearance (neck,
  topline and tail carriage)

Dudley or butterfly nose.
Bite overshot.
Hanging tongue.
White spot or blaze anywhere on coat.

Approved September 11, 1990
Effective October 30, 1990

Thursday, February 4, 2010

English Cocker Spaniel small dog breed

The English Cocker Spaniel is a breed of gun dog. The English Cocker Spaniel is an active, good-natured, sporting dog, standing well up at the withers and compactly built. There are "field" or "working" cockers and "show" cockers. It is one of several varieties of spaniel and somewhat resembles its American cousin, the American Cocker Spaniel, although it is closer to the working-dog form of the Field Spaniel and the Springer Spaniel.

Outside the US, the breed is usually known simply as the Cocker Spaniel, as is the American Cocker Spaniel within the US. Due to the breed's happy disposition and continuously wagging tail, it has been given the cute nickname "merry cocker". They can be also dominant and loyal to their companion. Their health issues are typical for a purebred dog breed; however they are closely associated with rage syndrome even though cases are really quite rare. The word cocker is commonly held to stem from their use to hunt woodcock.


The English Cocker Spaniel is a sturdy, compact, well-balanced dog. It has a characteristic expression showing intelligence and alertness. Its eyes should be dark and its lobular ears should reach the tip of the nose when pulled forward. Today, a significant difference in appearance exists between field-bred and conformation show-bred dogs. The Cocker's tail is customarily docked in North America. In countries where docking is legal, the tail is generally docked at about 4–5 inches (10–13 cm) in field-bred dogs while show dogs generally are docked closer to the body. Docking is now illegal in Australia, South Africa and Scotland. In England and Wales, docking can only be carried out on dogs where the owners have proved that the dogs will be used as working or shooting dogs.

The breed standard indicates that the males of the breed are on average between 15.5–16 inches (39–41 cm) at the withers with the females a little smaller, growing to between 15–15.5 inches (38–39 cm). Both males and females of the breed weigh approximately 13–14.5 kgs (28–32 lbs). American Cocker Spaniels are smaller, with the males being on average between 14.2–15.4 inches (36–39 cm), and females again being smaller on average at between 13.4–14.6 inches (34–37 cm), both weighing approximately 11–13 kgs (24.3–28.6 lbs). The closely related English Springer Spaniels are larger than either types of cockers, growing to between 18.9–19.7 inches (48–50 cm) for the females, and 19.3–20.1 inches (49–51 cm) for the males, and weighing between 23–25 kgs (50.7–55.1 lbs).

The English Cocker Spaniel is similar to the English Springer Spaniel and at first glance the only major difference is the larger size of the Springer. However English Cockers also tend to have longer, and lower-set ears than English Springers. In addition Springers also tend to have a longer muzzle, their eyes are not as prominent and the coat is less abundant.


Breed standards restrict dogs to certain colours for the purposes of conformation showing (dependent on country), whereas working Cockers can be any of a wide variety of colours. For instance, the breed standard of the United Kingdom's Kennel Club states that in solid colours, no white is allowed except for on the chest.
They come in solid (or "self"), particolour, and roan types of markings. The colours themselves in the breed consist of black, liver with brown pigmentation, red with black or brown pigmentation, golden with black or brown pigmentation,  sable, silver, ash, black and tan, liver and tan, blue roan, liver roan, orange roan with black or brown pigmentation, lemon roan with black or brown pigmentation, black and white ticked, liver and white ticked, orange and white ticked with black or brown pigmentation, lemon and white ticked with black or brown pigmentation, black and white, 

liver and white with brown pigmentation, orange and white with black or brown pigmentation, lemon and white with black or brown pigmentation. Of the solid colours, sable is considered rare, and is classified by some countries as being a type of particolour on account of it's mixed hair shafts. White is black/brown pigmentation is also considered rare, and is also usually classified as a particolour too. In addition a silver/ash colour, usually associated with the Weimaraner breed of dog, is considered genetically possible but is yet to be recorded by the United Kingdom's Kennel Club. Of the roan varieties, lemon roan with a light brown pigmentation is the most recessive of all the roans. Plain white Cockers are rarely born, and are thought to be more prone to deafness than those with more pigmentation. As such they are generally not encouraged in the breed.


The English Cocker Spaniel can be stubborn, but can be easily trained and make a good medium-sized family pet. The breed does not like being alone, and will bond strongly to an individual person in a family. Known for optimism, intelligence and adaptability, the breed is extremely loyal and affectionate. They rank 18th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of excellent working/obedience intelligence.
A link between coat colour and temperament has been proposed. This link could be the colour pigment melanin, which is biochemically similar to chemicals that act as transmitters in the brain. A study made by the University of Cambridge involving over 1,000 Cocker Spaniel households throughout Britain concluded that solid colour Cockers were more likely to be aggressive in 12 out of 13 situations. Red/golden Cockers were shown to be the most aggressive of all, in situations involving strangers, family members, while being disciplined, and sometimes for no apparent reason. A study by Spanish researchers at the Autonomous University of Barcelona revealed a similar link between golden Cockers and aggression. Males were also more likely to be aggressive. The study found the English Cocker Spaniel to have the highest level of owner- and stranger- directed aggression compared to other breeds.

Rage Syndrome

Rage Syndrome is described as when a dog attacks suddenly and savagely, without any warning and during the attack the dog often has a glazed look and appears to be unaware of its surroundings. Studies have found it is more common in solid colored Cockers than in particolors and also more common in darker colored Cockers than lighter coloured Cockers, being most common in solid orange and black colored spaniels. Male orange spaniels are not recommended as a family pet and should never be left alone with children. Rage syndrome is most often associated with the Show Cocker Spaniel breed, although cases have been found in other breeds and cases are relatively rare even within the Cocker Spaniel breed. Rage syndrome cannot be accurately predicted and can only be diagnosed by EEG or genetic testing and these tests are not conclusive.


English Cocker Spaniels in UK and USA/Canada have an average lifespan of 11 to 12 years,which is a typical longevity for purebred dogs, but a little less than most other breeds of their size. The English Cocker Spaniel typically lives about a year longer than the smaller American Cocker Spaniel.
In a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (30%), old age (17%), cardiac (9%), and "combinations" (7%).
In 1998 and 2002 USA/Canada Health Surveys, the leading causes of death were old age (40%) and cancer (22%).
Common health issues with English Cockers are bite problems, skin allergies, shyness, cataracts, deafness, aggression towards other dogs, and benign tumours.

Some uncommon health issues that can also have an effect on English Cocker Spaniels include canine hip dysplasia, patellar lunation, canine dilated cardiomyopathy, and heart murmurs. Hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip joint which is the most common cause of canine arthritis in the hips. Patellar Lunation, also known as luxating patella, refers to the dislocation of the kneecap. Canine dilated cardiomyopathy is an adult onset condition which occurs when the heart muscle is weak and does not contract properly. It can lead to congestive heart failure, which is where fluid accumilates in the lungs, chest, abdominal cavities, or under the skin. Dilated cardiomyopathy is often accompanied by abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias which can complicate treatment.


A field-bred cocker spaniel is first and foremost an upland flushing dog. In performing this task there are some skills the dog must be trained to perform.
    * Hup This is the traditional command to sit and stay. To be an effective hunter the dog must comply with this command absolutely. When hupped the dog can be given direction called to the handler. The ability to hup a dog actively working a running bird allow the handler and any gunners to keep up without having to run.
    * Retrieve to Hand The majority of hunters and all hunt test or field trial judges require that a dog deliver a bird to hand, meaning that a dog will hold the bird until told to give it to the hunter directly.
    * Quarter Dogs must work in a pattern in front of the hunter seeking upland game birds. The dog must be taught to stay within gun range to avoid flushing a bird outside of shooting distance.
    * Follow Hand Signals Upland hunting involves pursuing wild game in its native habitat. Gun dogs must investigate likely covers for upland game birds. The dog must be responsive to hand signals in order for the hunter to be able to direct the dog into areas of particular interest.
    * Steady When hunting upland birds, a flushing dog should be steady to wing and shot, meaning that he sits when a bird rises or a gun is fired. He does this in order to mark the fall and to avoid flushing other birds when pursuing a missed bird.


Spaniel type dogs have been found in art and literature for almost 500 years. Initially, spaniels in England were divided among land spaniels and water spaniels. The differentiation among the spaniels that led to the breeds that we see today did not begin until the mid 1800s. During this time, the land spaniels became a bit more specialized and divisions among the types were made based upon weight. According to the 1840 Encyclopedia of Rural Sports, Cockers were 12–20 lb (5.5–9 kg). At this time it was not uncommon for Cockers and Springers to come from the same litter. Even a puppy from a “Toy” sized lineage could grow to be a springer.
There is no indication from these early sources that spaniels were used to retrieve game. Rather they were used to drive the game toward the guns.
During the 1850s and 1860s, other types of Cockers were recorded. There were Welsh Cockers and Devonshire Cockers. Additionally, small dogs from Sussex Spaniel litters were called Cockers. In 1874 the first stud books were published by the newly formed kennel club. Any spaniel under 25 lb (11 kg) was placed in the Cocker breeding pool, however the Welsh Cocker was reclassified as a Springer in 1903 due to its larger size and shorter ear. " those days only those dogs up to a hard day’s work and sensible specimens were allowed to live, as absolute sporting purposes were about their only enjoyment and dog shows were hardly heard of...".

The sport of conformation showing began in earnest among spaniels after the Spaniel Club was formed in 1885. When showing, the new Springer and Cocker, both were in the same class until The Spaniel Club created breed standards for each of the types. The Kennel Club separated the two types eight years later. Since then, the Springer and Cocker enthusiasts have bred in the separate traits that they desired. Today, the breed differ in more ways than weight alone.
At Crufts, the English Cocker Spaniel has been the most successful breed in winning Best in Show, winning on a total of seven occasions between 1928 and 2009, with wins in 1930, 1931, 1938, 1939, 1948, 1950 and 1996. In addition, the breed make up three of the four winners who have won the title on more than one occasion with all three coming from H.S. Lloyd's Ware kennel. Due to World War II, the English Cocker Spaniel managed to be the only breed to have won the title between 1938 and 1950, although the competition was only held on four occasions during that period.

American Cocker Spaniel

The American Cocker Spaniel was developed from the English Cocker Spaniel in the 19th century to retrieve quail and woodcock. They were originally divided from the English Cocker solely on a size basis, but were bred over the years for different specific traits. The two Cocker Spaniels were shown together in America until 1936, when the English Cocker received status as a separate breed. The American Kennel Club granted a separate breed designation for the English Cocker Spaniel in 1946.

Famous owners
Famous people who owned English Cocker spaniels include Robert Kennedy, former U.S. President Richard Nixon, poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Oprah Winfrey, and Charlize Theron.

Working Cockers

This breed, like many others with origins as working dogs, has some genetic lines that focus on working-dog skills and other lines that focus on ensuring that the dog's appearance conforms to a breed standard; these are referred to as the "working" (or "field-bred") and "conformation" strains, respectively. After World War II, Cocker Spaniels bred for pets and for the sport of conformation showing increased enormously in popular appeal, and, for a while, was the most numerous Kennel Club registered breed. This popularity increased the view that all Cockers were useless as working dogs. However, for many dogs this is untrue, as even some show-bred Cockers have retained their working instinct.
Today, this breed is experiencing a resurgence in usage as a working and hunting dog. Dogs from working lines are noticeably distinct in appearance.

As is the case with the English Springer Spaniel, the working type has been bred exclusively to perform in the field as a hunting companion. Their coat is shorter and ears less pendulous than the show-bred type. Although registered as the same breed, the two strains have diverged significantly enough that they are rarely crossed. The dogs that have dominated the hunt test, field trial and hunting scene in the United States are field-bred dogs from recently imported British lines. Working-dog lines often have physical characteristics that would prevent them from winning in the show ring. This is a result of selecting for different traits than those selected by show breeders. The longer coat and ears, selected for the show ring, are an impediment in the field. Cuban authorities train and use English Cocker Spaniels as sniffer dogs to check for drugs or food products in passengers' baggage at Cuban airports.

Cocker Spaniel

Cocker Spaniel refers to two different breeds of dogs of the Spaniel dog type, both of which are commonly called simply Cocker Spaniel in their countries of origin. They were bred as gun dogs, using their noses to methodically cover low areas near the handler to flush ground-dwelling birds into the air. They then use their eyes to follow the bird to where it lands, then rushing over and, using their noses if necessary, gently pick up the bird and drop it somewhere near the handler.
Like other flushing dogs, Cocker Spaniels make great family house pets, but if used in this way and not as gun dogs, or if not given some other outlet for their natural urge to flush and upland retrieve, they tend to get into trouble by attempting to act out these behaviors indoors or in another inappropriate setting with objects that remind them of birds, often light objects such as sponges or paper, or become depressed, food-obsessed, or fat.

The English Cocker Spaniel is a medium-sized, compact dog. The head is arched and looks slightly flattened when viewed from the side. The muzzle is the same length as the head with a defined stop. The nose is black or brown depending on the coat color. The teeth meet in a scissors or level bite. The medium-sized, oval eyes are dark brown or hazel in liver colored dogs. The ears are set low and hanging long covered in silky, or wavy hair. The chest is deep and the front legs are straight. The topline is almost level, sloping slightly from the front to the back of the dog. The tail is usually docked. Note: docking the tail is illegal in most parts of Europe. The cat-like feet have tight arched toes. The hairs are medium length on the body but short and fine on the head. There is feathering on the ears, chest, abdomen and legs. Coat colors come in solid black, liver or red or parti coloring of white with black, liver or red markings or ticking. Many colors are admissible, but on solid color dogs white is acceptable only on the chest. There are sometimes tan markings on black, liver or parti-colored dogs. There are two types of English Cocker: field and show. The show types have longer coats than the field/working types.


The English Cocker Spaniel is an intelligent, sturdy and robust dog. Lively, perky and lovable, pleasant, gentle, playful and affectionate, they are excellent with children. They are average barkers, and are willing and happy to listen to their owners. A superior companion dog. Generally an outgoing breed, taking to strangers easily, but some individuals can be reserved without enough socialization. This breed can do well with family cats. There are two types, field lines and show lines (bench). Field types are bred for hunting and field trial work. The bench type are bred for conformation shows. Both types are energetic and need daily exercise, but field lines have a higher energy level, and need even more exercise. The dominancy level in this breed varies widely even within the same litter. They are sensitive to the tone of one's voice and will not listen if they sense they are stronger minded than their owner, however they will also not respond well to harsh discipline. If you are not the type of person who can display a natural air of calm, but firm authority, then be sure to choose a pup who is more submissive. The temperament of both show and field lines vary widely, depending upon how the owners treat the dog and how much and what type of exercise they provide. Those individuals who are not taken for daily walks, allowed to believe they are alpha over humans and or who are treated like little humans with four legs end up with a varying degree of behavior and or temperament issues. Those individuals who are given consistent structure, calm, stern authority, with rules made clear and daily walks where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the human have the best temperaments. 

Height, weight
Height: Dogs 15-17 inches (38-43cm.) Bitches 14-16 inches (36-41 cm)
Weight: Dogs 28-34 pounds (13-16kg) Bitches 26-32 pounds (12-15kg)

Health Problems

Prone to ear infections. During the summer, the ears should be checked often. Hanging close to the ground as they do, they can become host to ticks or burr, often the cause of deafness. Gains weight easily, do not overfeed.

Living Conditions

English Cocker Spaniels will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. They do best with at least an average-sized yard.


The English Cocker Spaniel enjoys as much exercise as you can give it. They need to be taken on a daily walk, where the dog is made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead. Dogs who are allowed to walk in front of the human instinctually believe they are alpha over humans, as in a dog's mind, the pack leader goes first.

Life Expectancy

About 12-15 years.


Regular combing and brushing of the coat is important. Coat types vary within the breed. Some coats have an excess amount of cottony hair and are prone to matting, while others are more silky and flat-laying and are less prone to matting.  Bathe or dry shampoo as necessary. Check the ears for grass seeds and signs of infection. Clean out excess wax regularly. Brush the hair on the feet down over the toes and trim it level with the base of the feet. Trim the hair around the pads, but not between the toes. Brush out burrs and tangles after the dog has been playing in the grassy fields or woods. This breed is an average shedder.


The English Cocker Spaniel is one of the oldest spaniels known. Originally known as a general spaniel-type dog, who was imported into England centuries ago, the dogs were divided into seven different spaniel breeds. The English Springer, the Cocker Spaniel, the Clumber, the Sussex, the Welsh Springer, the Field, and the Irish Water. The Cocker and Springer Spaniels developed together, with only size differentiating them until 1892 when the Kennel Club of England recognized them as separate breeds. In 1946 the American and Canadian Kennel Clubs recognized the English Cocker Spaniel as a separate breed from the American Cocker Spaniel. The Cocker Spaniel is a hunting-gun dog able to work in difficult terrain in both wet and dry land. Excellent at flushing and retrieving game with a gentle mouth. They listen to commands well. The name "Cocker" comes from the woodcock, a game bird the dogs were known for flushing. Some of the English Cocker Spaniels talents are hunting, tracking, retrieving, watchdog, agility and competitive obedience.

Wednesday, February 3, 2010

Chihuahua Breed Standard

General Appearance
A graceful, alert, swift-moving compact little dog with saucy expression, and with terrier-like qualities of temperament.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Weight – A well balanced little dog not to exceed 6 pounds. Proportion – The body is off-square; hence, slightly longer when measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks, than height at the withers. Somewhat shorter bodies are preferred in males. DisqualificationAny dog over 6 pounds in weight. 

A well rounded "apple dome" skull, with or without molera. Expression – Saucy. Eyes - Full, round, but not protruding, balanced, set well apart-luminous dark or luminous ruby. Light eyes in blond or white-colored dogs permissible. Blue eyes or a difference in the color of the iris in the two eyes, or two different colors within one iris should be considered a serious fault. Ears – Large, erect type ears, held more upright when alert, but flaring to the sides at a 45 degree angle when in repose, giving breadth between the ears. Stop – Well defined. When viewed in profile, it forms a near 90 degree angle where muzzle joins skull. Muzzle – Moderately short, slightly pointed. Cheeks and jaws lean. Nose – Self-colored in blond types, or black. In moles, blues, and chocolates, they are self-colored. In blond types, pink noses permissible. Bite – Level or scissors. Overshot or undershot, or any distortion of the bite or jaw, should be penalized as a serious fault. A missing tooth or two is permissible. DisqualificationsBroken down or cropped ears. 

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck – Slightly arched, gracefully sloping into lean shoulders. Topline – Level. Body – Ribs rounded and well sprung (but not too much "barrel-shaped"). Tail – Moderately long, carried sickle either up or out, or in a loop over the back with tip just touching the back.
(Never tucked between legs.) DisqualificationsDocked tail, bobtail.

Shoulders – Lean, sloping into a slightly broadening support above straight forelegs that set well under, giving free movement at the elbows. Shoulders should be well up, giving balance and soundness, sloping into a level back (never down or low). This gives a well developed chest and strength of forequarters. Feet – A small, dainty foot with toes well split up but not spread, pads cushioned. (Neither the hare nor the cat foot.) Dewclaws may be removed. Pasterns – Strong.

Muscular, with hocks well apart, neither out nor in, well let down, firm and sturdy. Angulation – Should equal that of forequarters. The feet are as in front. Dewclaws may be removed.

In the Smooth Coats, the coat should be of soft texture, close and glossy. (Heavier coats with undercoats permissible.) Coat placed well over body with ruff on neck preferred, and more scanty on head and ears. Hair on tail preferred furry. In Long Coats, the coat should be of a soft texture, either flat or slightly wavy, with undercoat preferred. Ears – Fringed. Tail – Full and long (as a plume). Feathering on feet and legs, pants on hind legs and large ruff on the neck desired and preferred. (The Chihuahua should be groomed only to create a neat appearance.) DisqualificationIn Long Coats, too thin coat that resembles bareness

Any color - Solid, marked or splashed. 

The Chihuahua should move swiftly with a firm, sturdy action, with good reach in front equal to the drive from the rear. From the rear, the hocks remain parallel to each other, and the foot fall of the rear legs follows directly behind that of the forelegs. The legs, both front and rear, will tend to converge slightly toward a central line of gravity as speed increases. The side view shows good, strong drive in the rear and plenty of reach in the front, with head carried high. The topline should remain firm and the backline level as the dog moves.

Alert, projecting the ‘terrier-like’ attitudes of self importance, confidence, self-reliance.

Any dog over 6 pounds in weight.
Broken down or cropped ears.
Docked tail, bobtail.
In Long Coats, too thin coat that resembles bareness.

Approved August 12, 2008
Effective October 1, 2008

Affenpinscher Breed Standard

General Appearance
The Affenpinscher is a balanced, wiry-haired terrier-like toy dog whose intelligence and demeanor make it a good house pet. Originating in Germany, the name Affenpinscher means, "monkey-like terrier." The breed was developed to rid the kitchens, granaries, and stables of rodents. In France the breed is described as the "Diablotin Moustachu" or moustached little devil. Both describe the appearance and attitude of this delightful breed. The total overall appearance of the Affenpinscher is more important than any individual characteristic. He is described as having a neat but shaggy appearance.

Size, Proportion, Substance
A sturdy, compact dog with medium bone, not delicate in any way. Preferred height at the withers is 9 1/2" to 11 1/2". Withers height is approximately the same as the length of the body from the point of the shoulder to point of the buttocks, giving a square appearance. The female may be slightly longer.

The head is in proportion to the body, carried confidently with monkey-like facial expression. Eyes-- Round, dark, brilliant, and of medium size in proportion to the head but not bulging or protruding. Eye rims are black. Ears-- Cropped to a point, set high and standing erect; or natural, standing erect, semi-erect or dropped. All of the above types of ears, if symmetrical, are acceptable as long as the monkey-like expression is maintained. Skull--Round and domed, but not coarse. Stop--Well-defined. Muzzle-- Short and narrowing slightly to a blunt nose. The length of the muzzle is approximately the same as the distance between the eyes. Nose-- Black, turned neither up nor down. Lips-- Black, with prominent lower lip. Bite-- Slightly undershot. A level bite is acceptable if the monkey-like expression is maintained. An overshot bite is to be severely penalized. A wry mouth is a serious fault. The teeth and tongue do not show when the mouth is closed. The lower jaw is broad enough for the lower teeth to be straight and even.

Neck, Topline, Body
Neck-- Short and straight. Topline straight and level. Body--The chest is moderately broad and deep; ribs are moderately sprung. Tuckup is slight. The back is short and level with a strong loin. The croup has just a perceptible curve. Tail may be docked or natural. A docked tail is generally between 1" and 2" long, set high and carried erect. The natural tail is set high and carried curved gently up over the back while moving. The type of tail is not a major consideration. 

Front angulation is moderate. Shoulders-- with moderate layback. The length of the shoulder blade and the upper arm are about equal. Elbows-- close to the body. Front legs straight when viewed from any direction. Pasterns short and straight. Dewclaws generally removed. Feet small, round, and compact with black pads and nails.

Rear angulation is moderate to match the front. Hindlegs straight when viewed from behind. From the side, hindlegs are set under the body to maintain a square appearance. The length of the upper thigh and the second thigh are about equal with moderate bend to the stifle. Hocks-- Moderately angulated.

Dense hair, rough, harsh, and about 1" in length on the shoulders and body. May be shorter on the rear and tail. Head, neck, chest, stomach and legs have longer, less harsh coat. The mature Affenpinscher has a mane or cape of strong hair which blends into the back coat at the withers area. The longer hair on the head, eyebrows and beard stands off and frames the face to emphasize the monkey-like expression. Hair on the ears is cut very short. A correct coat needs little grooming to blend the various lengths of hair to maintain a neat but shaggy appearance.

Black, gray, silver, red, black and tan, or belge are all acceptable. Blacks may have a rusty cast or a few white or silver hairs mixed with the black. Reds may vary from a brownish red to an orangey tan. Belge has black, brown, and/or white hairs mixed with the red. With various colors, the furnishings may be a bit lighter. Some dogs may have black masks. A small white spot on the chest is not penalized, but large white patches are undesirable. Color is not a major consideration.

Light, free, sound, balanced, confident, the Affenpinscher carries itself with comic seriousness. Viewed from the front or rear while walking, the legs move parallel to each other. Trotting, the feet will converge toward a midline as speed increases. Unsound gait is to be heavily penalized.

General demeanor is game, alert, and inquisitive with great loyalty and affection toward its master and friends. The breed is generally quiet, but can become vehemently excited when threatened or attacked, and is fearless toward any aggressor. 

Approved June 12, 2000
Effective July 27, 2000

Monday, February 1, 2010

Basset Hound small dog breed

The Basset Hound is a short-legged breed of dog of the hound family. They are scent hounds, bred to hunt rabbits by scent.

Their sense of smell for tracking is second only to that of the Bloodhound. The name Basset is derived from the French word bas, meaning "low", with the attenuating suffix -et, together meaning "rather low". Basset hounds are commonly brown and black and most often spotted, but also exist in a variety of colors.


Build:     Short-legged; proportionally heavier in bone than any other breed of dog
Weight:     50–65 pounds (23–29 kg)
Height:     12–15 inches (30–38 cm)
Coat:     Short, hard and shiny, sheds.
Color:     Any recognized hound colour is acceptable (tri-Color, red & white, honey/lemon & white, Blue/Gray, and black & tan)
Head:     Large and well proportioned, prominent occiput on males.
Teeth:     Scissors or even bite
Eyes:     Brown, soft, sad, and slightly sunken, showing a prominent haw
Ears:     Extremely long, velvety in texture, hanging in loose folds, low set, and when drawn forward, fold well over the end of the nose
Tail:     Slightly curved, erect when walking. White tip aids in tracking. Never docked.
Limbs:     Short, powerful, heavy
Feet:     Massive, very heavy with tough heavy pads
Life span:     Median 10–12 years

These dogs are around 1-foot in height at the withers. They usually weigh between 35-70 lbs. They have smooth, short-haired coats but a rough haired hound is possible. Although any hound colour is considered acceptable by breed standards, Bassets are generally tricolor (black, tan, and white), open red and white (red spots on white fur), closed red and white (a solid red color with white feet and tails), Honey And White (honey coloured back, light brown spotty nose and legs, light brown tails with white tip) and lemon and white. Some Bassets are also classified as gray or blue; however, this colour is considered rare and undesirable. They have long, downward ears and powerful necks, with much loose skin around their heads that forms wrinkles. Their tails are long and tapering and stand upright with a curve. Tails usually have white tips so the dogs are more easily seen when hunting/tracking through large bushes or weeds. The breed is also known for its hanging skin structure, which causes the face to occasionally look sad; this, for many people, adds to the breed's charm. The dewlap, seen as the loose, elastic skin around the neck, and the trailing ears, help trap the scent of what they are tracking.

The Basset Hound is a large dog with short legs. They were originally bred to have osteochondrodysplasia, known as dwarfism. Their short stature can be deceiving; Bassets are surprisingly long and can reach things on table tops that dogs of similar heights cannot. However, because Bassets are so heavy and have such short legs, they are not able to hold themselves above water for very long, and should never be made to swim.

The Basset Hound is seen as an especially friendly breed. For this reason they are an excellent pet for children. Many Bassets "forget" the training when a reward is not present. Bassets should be on a leash when out on walks.

Bassets are known to be a vocal breed. Bassets might howl or bark when they want something or to suggest that they think something is wrong (like a storm is coming). They also use a low, murmuring whine to get attention, which sounds to many owners as though their Bassets are "talking." This whine is also used by the hound to beg (for food or treats) and varies in volume depending on the nature of the individual hound and length of time it has been begging.

Hunting with Bassets
The Basset Hound was bred to hunt. Its keen nose and short stature are suited to small-game hunting on foot.

Many Bassets have lost their age-old skills. There are a few groups that promote hunting with bassets.The American Hunting Basset Associationand the Basset Hound Club of America has been the most active in promoting the use of Bassets for rabbit hunting.

Hunting with Basset Hounds when with an organization such as the American Hunting Basset Association or the Basset Hound Club of America do not involve the killing of any animals. These organizations are merely testing the Basset Hound's skills at tracking/trailing a rabbit's scent. Each organization is different in how it functions. With the AHBA, a group of 4 to 6 hounds (cast) are given one hour to find their own rabbit and judged based upon a standard set of rules while in the BHCA two dogs are paired and then put on a rabbit track and then judged. Typically the BHCA hunting lasts a few minutes per brace, the basset pair. With both organizations, the winning dog in each brace for the BHCA or cast for the AHBA go on to compete against the other winning dogs.

Hunting with Basset Hounds as a pack is common in the Mid-Atlantic States of Maryland, Virginia, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Several private and membership packs exist in these states. Hunting for cotton tails and hare is the quarry of preference. There were a number of Basset Hound packs in its original home of England when the hunting of hares (see Beagling) was made illegal by the Hunting Act 2004.

Hunting a hound pack requires a staff which consists of a Huntsman and the Whipper-Ins who are responsible for order and discipline of the pack. A Field Master is in charge of the field (members of the hunt and guests) that follows behind observing the hounds work the covert. Most clubs will hunt in traditional attire of a green jacket and brush pants. Recognized clubs offer those members who have supported the pack the opportunity to wear colors on the collar to indicate rank in the club.

These packs are typically of English and French hound blood lines with a mix of AKC blood lines in some packs. The National Beagle Club located at the Institute Farm in Aldie, Virginia approximately 50 miles west of Washington D.C. host spring and fall field trials for basset hounds. The competition held over a 4-day period with participating packs hunting in the traditional manner in braces of up to 1 hour and 15 minutes. The pack size for each competition varies, from 3 to 7 couple.

Because of the extremely long ears of Bassets they are prone to ear disease. If their ears are allowed to dangle on the ground or in food on a daily basis they are capable of developing chronic and potentially fatal ear diseases. The only recent mortality and morbidity surveys of Basset Hounds are from the UK: a 1999 longevity survey with a small sample size of 10 deceased dogs and a 2004 UK Kennel Club health survey with a larger sample size of 142 deceased dogs and 226 live dogs.

In addition to ear problems, basset hounds may also have eye issues. Because of their droopy eyes, the area under the eyeball will collect dirt and become clogged with a mucus. It is best to wipe their eyes every day with a damp cloth. This helps to lessen the build up and eye irritation.

Basset Hounds can be on the lazy side and can become overweight on their own if allowed to. They need plenty of exercise and a good diet.

Basset hounds are also prone to yeast infections in the folds around the mouth, where drool can collect without thoroughly drying out. Wiping the area with a clean, dry towel and applying talcum powder can minimize this risk.

Median longevity of Basset Hounds in the UK is about 11.4 years, which is a typical median longevity for purebred dogs and for breeds similar in size to Basset Hounds. The oldest of the 142 deceased dogs in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey was 16.7 years. Leading causes of death in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey were cancer (31%), old age (13%), GDV (bloat/torsion), (11%), and cardiac (8%).

Among 226 live Basset Hounds in the 2004 UKC survey, the most common health issues noted by owners were dermatologic (e.g., dermatitis), reproductive, musculoskeletal (e.g., arthritis and lameness), and gastrointestinal (e.g. GDV and colitis).

Basset Hounds are also prone to epilepsy, glaucoma, luxating patella, thrombopathia, Von Willebrand disease, hypothyroidism, hip dysplasia, and elbow dysplasia.

Training is a touchy topic when dealing with the Basset Hound breed. Trainers must be persistent with this breed in order to achieve a well mannered dog, as Bassets have a tendency to listen to their noses instead of verbal commands.

While this can lead to stubbornness, it also means that they are highly motivated by food (particularly fragrant ones) and tend to respond well to treat-based positive reinforcement methods. Owners need to make the training process lively and entertaining to allow the Basset to learn more efficiently.